Year 12

YEAR 12 – JUNE / JULY 2009 – PSAMMOSERE INVESTIGATION

Now you have finished your AS course we are going straight into preparing for Unit 4  – The Geography Fieldwork Investigation. Over the 6 weeks of this last half term you will be working on the Psammosere investigation which will be based on the data you collect during your fieldwork day at Holkham Bay which is on MONDAY 29th JUNE (please make sure you have returned your reply slip for this asap!). Over the next 6 weeks, this assignment needs to be written up in full and handed in on Thursday 17th July 2009. It is preparation for your A2 skills paper in January and the theory you will be starting to learn also underpins the ecosystems module that you will be studying in the autumn term. The next few weeks work will be delivered by a mixutre of formal lessons and periods in the IT room. You will need to work independently as well to make sure you fully complete the tasks. If you miss lessons for Open Days etc.. you mneed to make sure you keep yourself uptodate – all the tasks have been set out in the booklet so you can get work completed in your own time as necessary. You can download a copy of the A2 Psammosere booklet here which will enable you to copy and paste and then edit parts of your write up.

There are also some basic notes and links below which will help you.

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Succession in Sand Dune Ecosystems

1. How do Sand Dunes develop?

REMEMBER: Key term – plant succession in a sand dune ecosystem is known as a psammosere

Remember sand dunes are an important deposition feature formed by the wind (aeolian processes). They normally develop where: (i) there is a strong on-shore wind; (ii) there is a large supply of sand; (iii) a large inter-tidal range so that large expanses of sand regularly dry out.

A simple sequence of Sand Dune Formation and succession.

  • The wind moves sand dried out at low tide inland by saltation;
  • An obstacle (e.g. driftwood) will halt saltation and result in the accumulation of sand
  • Pioneer plants (e.g. marram grass) can tolerate the harsh conditions and begin to colonise the area – this encourages further deposition and the growth of the dunes;
  • another dune forms on the seaward side of the original dune (sheltering the original dune and resulting in changing environmental conditions)
  • A sequence of dunes forms (oldest inland) and environmental conditions continue to change due to the presence of vegetation (e.g. simple soils form due to decaying vegetation).
  • Number and diversity of plant species on the dunes increases – eventually the climax community is reached;

(iii) Primary Succession on Sand Dunes

Due to the process of succession , it se often possible to see clear zonation in sand dunes due to succession as the sand dunes tend to form in a series of parallel ridges of increasing age (see diagram drawn in your notes and learn the changing characteristics of each zone).

Key Terms to remember:

  • EMBRYO DUNE – youngest dunes where sand has just started to accumulate – very little vegetation – only xerophytic species such as marram grass present, helping to stabalise the dune.
  • FOREDUNES – larger than embryo dunes, formed as more sand accumulates and embryo dunes begin to join together
  • YELLOW DUNE – reach up to 5 meters – yellow colour due to lack of presence of soil
  • GREY DUNE – these are mature dunes (8-10m high) – they are grey in colour due to the presence of humus through the process of bioconstruction (where soil has been formed due to the presence of decaying vegetation and bacteria)
  • WASTING DUNE – The oldest dunes (often with blow outs present) (no longer fed by supply of fresh sand dune to distance from beach)
  • DUNE SLACK – these are depression between the dunes where the water table is near to the surface (environmental conditions tend to be more favourable here due to sheltered conditions – has a better developed plant community – often water loving specieis – e.g. Bog Cotton)
  • BLOW OUT – these are channels through the dune created as trampling by animals or humans has destroyed vegetation, exposing sand to the action of wind.
  • XEROPHYTIC – these are plants which are tolerant of very dry conditions (i.e. can survive lack of water – marram grass is a good example (learn the adaptations of marram grass – see coursework notes).
  • HALOPHYTIC – these are plants which are tolerant of salty conditions

Test yourself on the key terms by having a go at this crossword.

 

Background Reading on Sand Dunes:

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Year 12 REVISION – APRIL 09

Remember – you have everything in your notes – you need to go through them thoroughly and learn!!

Check lists are in your folders already – remember these are what I gave out to help you order your folders and they are set out in bullet point form in terms of what the syllabus says you need to know!

Unfortunately the glaciation resources I was hoping to upload haven’t scanned properly – and they will be printed ready for your return – in the meantime you have everything you need in your notes! Make good use of your notes and the revision questions in both the physical and skills books!

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YEAR 12 – JULY 2008

PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU POP IN AND COLLECT A YELLOW LAST MINUTE REMINDERS SLIP FOR THE SNOWDONIA TRIP!!! THEY ARE IN MY ROOM OR MRS MOTTRAM HAS SOME.

GLACIATION INTRODUCTION – (posted June 19th)

My apologies for the delay in putting up this post re. Task C – the list of good sites to look through / read are:

There is also our own Glaciation site – which I will be using more with you next term – but it will start to give you some background – including a peak at the Snowdonia work.

There are some fabulous photographs of the amazing glacial landscapes you will see on the fieldtrip here.

To help with this – think about the following:-

  • What is a glacier?
  • What are the processes of erosion?
  • Upland glacial landforms – formed by erosion
  • Upland glacial landforms – formed by deposition
  • Lowland glacial landforms
  • How a glacier is formed
  • Where glaciers are
  • Ice age and the formation of glaciers.

Have a great time in Snowdonia!!

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REVISION – SUMMER 2008 – HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS EXAM

Ok – with the exams rapidly approaching I am going to post some resources here to help you with the last few weeks of lessons and also revision itself.

2. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION – West Indies to the UK and INTERNAL MIGRATION

As we have gone through the work very quickly in the last two lessons, I thought it might help with revision to go through the following powerpoint. PLEASE NOTE – there are some more detailed notes on the Internal migration bits from today which I asked you to look at previous notes on and also the table on push and pull factors (see last few slides).

1. MIGRATION – POLISH MIGRATION TO THE UK

This excellent map from the BBC shows the pattern of distribution of migrants in the UK originating from Eastern Europe. Since May 2004, 10 Eastern European countries have joined the EU and there has since this time been a large inlux of Eastern European migrants into the UK. For more on this see this article from the BBC – “Migrant Workers – What we know”

Have a look at this website and the clip from the Progamme “The Poles are coming…” – looks at the issues facing some areas of Cambridgeshire of the influx of a large numbers of migrants from Eastern Europe. As well as looking at the problems facing the UK, it also consider the issues that the places of origin face, for example the Polish city of Gdansk, where the shipyards are short of workers because of the large numbers of migrants moving out and even concerns that there are not enough workers to build the new football stadium for Euro 2012.

Although there is only a short clip of the film on the website it is worth watching. If you would like to borrow a full copy of the video then please see me.

Remember whilst reading up on this case study and revising you need to be thinking about what the consequences of the migration are in terms of Demographic, Social, Cultural Political and Economic as the questions on the exam paper will be looking for knowledge of this. Also make sure you think abou the impact of the migration on both the origin (i.e. Poland) and the destination (the UK).

Other websites with information on Polish migration to the UK are:

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COURSEWORK FORTNIGHT

Welcome Back – I hope the exams went well – the next two weeks of Geography Lessons will be coursework fortnight – we will be introducing the analysis and the conclusions and providing you with an insight into statistical testing and graphical analysis. Initial lessons will be based on teacher input, teaching you what is required in your analysis, but the bulk of the lessons will be available for you to work on your coursework with an opportunity to gain input / individual help from staff. Homework for the fortnight will be continuing with your coursework. You will then have until MONDAY 25th FEBRUARY to make ammendments to and complete your final coursework piece. Can I stress that this is a final deadline and will not be extended – you must meet this deadline. Marking begins immediately when coursework is handed in.

1. ANALYSIS

We will start in the first lesson looking at the analysis write up – please make sure you look at the mark scheme you have been given and the instructions / guidance in your orange books. You should also see the powerpoint below which we will have gone through in the lesson.

REVISION – UNIT 1 – Physical Environments

With Christmas fast approaching it is important that you have started setting up and starting your revision programme for the January exam. In particular before the Christmas holidays you need to ensure all your notes are in order, anything missing has been copied up and that you have identified and spoken to myself or Miss Monk about any concepts you don’t understand. Over christmas and the run up to the exams I will post in this area any links to revision resources that will be of help.

REVISION RESOURCES FOR EARTH SYSTEMS WORK

Earth Systems – main page (includes sample answers, quizzes, notes etc.)

REVISION RESOURCES FOR COASTS WORK:

1. Coastal Environments Revision Page – includes quizzes, sample answers etc

A huge thanks to Alex – here are some good revision notes on waves!

Vodpod videos no longer available.

WEEK 5 COASTS – Coastal Erosion

Coastal environments are dynamic and constantly changing, due to the concentration of energy that is available in these environments to carry out geomorphic work and create landforms.

The action of waves erodes the coastline through a number of processes:

  1. Wave Pounding (up to 30tonnes /m2 of pressure may be exerted by the force of waves hitting against the cliffline)
  2. Abrasion – this is often the most effective form of coastal erosion
  3. Solution
  4. Attrition
  5. Hydraulic Action

Coasts are also affected by sub-aerial weathering processes (non-marine), which can facilitate and make erosion processes more effective. These processes include:

  • Frost (freeze-thaw cycles) opening up joints in jointed rock
  • Rain – direct impact / that through surface-runoff / throughflow
  • Salt weathering – sodium compounds expanding in joints and weakening the rock structure
  • Wind – sand-blasting
  • Water layer weathering (alternate wetting and drying wllos chemical weathering to take place – e.g. hydration etc.)
  • Biological Processes – e.g. plant roots / algae / activity of birds etc.

Of course human activity also plays a part in affecting coastal erosion, through the creation of groynes and other sea defences, or weakening of the cliff line through building and other activities.

It is important that you understand the FACTORS AFFECTING WAVE EROSION and that you are also able to talk about how these vary both SPATIALLY (between different areas) and TEMPORALLY (i.e. differences over time).

Factors which can affect the rates of marine erosion are: (make sure you learn the details from your notes):

  • breaking point of the waves
  • beach material that is available
  • beach width
  • steepness of the wave
  • sea characteristics (depth and fetch)
  • shape and configuration of the coastline (i.e. headlands resulting in wave refraction)
  • structure and geology of the coastline (see this excellent animation on cliff profiles from Wycombe High School)
  • human factors
Spatial variations in Coastal Erosion
  • the presence or absence of groynes and other sea defences (human activity) (be prepared to discuss how these will cause variations in erosion)
  • the presence of cracks / joints / faults in rocks will cause some areas to have greater erosion as processes such as hydraulic action can be more effective
  • the presence of hard or soft rock will determine rates of erosion in a particular area – e.g. Holderness Coast – glacial till – very high rates of erosion as opposed to the chalk coastline of Dorset.
  • size of the fetch will different between different coastlines
Temporal Variations in Coastal Erosion
  • human activity will be important – i.e. building of groynes may act to reduce erosion in some areas through stopping longshore drift and encouraging beach development whilst acting to increase erosion further down the coast by starving an area of beach material. Likewise, other coastal defences may be constructed in an area to reduce erosion, although some may also increase erosion, for example beach nourishment, may provide more material for abrasion processes.
  • changes in wind direction (may affect the fetch and type of wave approaching the coastline)
  • changes in wind speed (seasonal storms) – will affect the amount of energy available for erosion to take place
  • tidal fluctuations will affect marine erosion rates, as erosion processes will be most effective at high tide
  • sea-level changes over time will also cause erosion rates to vary over time

Follow up Reading:

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WEEK 4 COASTS – Waves and Wave Action at the Coast

In lessons 2 and 3 this week we will be looking at the action of waves at the coast – links to support background reading related to this will appear later in the week.

My apologies for not having had chance to add much on this yet – I will try and add some more over the weekend – for now though here are a couple of animations to help you revise what we have been looking at:

1. Wave formation / motion – this animation shows the changing shape of the rotation of the water particles which are becoming more eliptical – look also how the wave height is increasing as it approaches the beach.

2. Wave formation – a second animation showing the 3D approach of waves to a coastline

3. Destructive and Constructive Waves – a simple animation comparing these two types of waves.

4. Wave Refraction – same animation as the first one – but click on Wave Refraction at the bottom – this really helps to show how the waves are concentrated on the headlands and the energy is dissipated in the bays

Follow up Reading:

Waves and Tides (Formation and development of Waves) (Wycombe High School)

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Week 4 – PROJECT PROPOSAL / THEORETICAL BACKGROUND (Monday 24th Sept) It is essential that all project proposals are completed by the end of the week so that they can be signed and sent off to the examiners for approval. We have Monday’s lesson this week to get project proposal forms written and typed. We are in the computer room for the hour and by the end of the lesson I would like you to have saved your completed project proposal form on to my memory pen. I will then check through and print your forms for you ready for signing later in the week. For details on how to complete your form – please see your red project guideline books and the information provided in the post below where you can also find a link to download the proposal form.If you have completed your proposal form you should start work on writing up your theoretical background. Remember, this provides the theory that is the basis of your project and you will be wanting to refer back to these ideas when discussing your hypothesis and when analysis your results.You should all include:• An outline of how Sand Dunes develop• a cross-section through the dunes with labels to add information to show the changes that occur across a dune – e.g. in vegetation as well as physical conditions such as pH; moisture content etc.However you also need to be tailoring this specifically to your project title. Therefore for example if you are looking at plant communities, you should be giving due consideration to species found on sand dunes. If you are considering the impact of environmental conditions on plant colonisation you should be giving consideration to the theory behind this – i.e. how does pH, wind speed etc. change along a transect and what types of species are expected to be found in response? How have they adapted etc.

You must make good use of key geographical terms in your write-up / diagrams and in particular names of plants. At a minimum you must include the following terms somewhere in your write up.

Psammosere; sere; seral stage; climax vegetation; pioneer species; Marram grass; succession; pH;

Your write up should be about a page of writing in total and should include fully labelled diagrams and possibly tables and labelled photographs. You have a 400 word word-limit. (Remember – you must label and refer to all diagrams, tables etc. i.e Photo 1 shows….)

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Week 3 – PROJECT PROPOSAL FORMS

The Edexcel ‘A’ Course requires you to complete a personal enquiry for Unit 3a. This enquiry has to include the collection of primary data based on fieldwork. This is therefore a research project which you plan, organise and complete as part of your final assessment. You will be expected to demonstrate an ability to collect, select and interpret information geographically and represent it using a range of graphic and cartographic means.

Your enquiry’s will be based on a days fieldwork, collecting data from the sand dunes at Holkham Bay. This trip will take place in October (see calendar for details).

Assessment of the Enquiry:

Your report must be no more than 2,500 words (there is a marks penalty if this is exceeded). For the AS Course, your mark for the Personal Enquiry makes up 40% of your marks, while at A2 it is worth 20% of your marks.

COMPLETING YOUR PROJECT PROPOSAL FORMS

Before completing your personal enquiry, you will be required to seek approval for your coursework plan before beginning work on it. You will need to outline your personal enquiry on a coursework proposal form (Geog A1) which will then be sent to the exam board assessor for St Ivo to be approved.

Your form will either be:

i) approved (you can carry out the coursework as detailed on your form)

ii) approved subject to modification (you can carry out the coursework, however you need to make a few ammendments to your plan as suggested by the assessor.

iii) Referred back to candidate for re-submission (you are required to rethink your plan completely and then re-submit a modified form).

Please Note: Your completed form does contribute to the mark in the assessment criteria for your project.

The Personal Enquiry Form (Geog 1A)

You will need to type up your proposal form and when completed this should be e-mailed direct to your teacher for checking and ammendments. You will then be given a printed copy of your completed form for your files.

Word Document – this version has textboxes on the form to enable you to type directly onto the form ready for printing.

  • To Download a copy of the Proposal Form in Word format to your computer – click here

pdf Format– if you do not have WORD on your computer and you want to just be able to print the form download this version ( You will need adobe reader)

How to complete your Personal Enquiry Form

This information sheet provides useful guidance to help you complete your Personal Enquiry Form.

Download Information Sheet (pdf file – adobe acrobat required)

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Week 3 – Coasts – Succession in Salt Marsh Ecosystems

Having looked at psammoseres last week, this week we have focused on Haloseres – this is plant succession in a salt marsh ecosystem. In the same way as in a psammosere, the plant community in a salt marsh ecosystem will change over time in relation to changing environmental conditions.

You should carry out some background reading to help you when revising this topic – remember you need to (i) be able to describe and explain succession in a halosere (with reference to specific species and with an emphasis on change over time – don’t simply describe the spatial pattern of succession) and (ii) be able to discuss human modification of a halosere (you should be able to talk about the specific impact on the ecosystem (i.e. impact on species number, disturbance of succession etc.)

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Week 2 – Coasts – Succession in Sand Dune Ecosystems

Welcome back to St Ivo and firstly congratulations to all of you on a super set of GCSE results. We are really glad you have decided to continue your geographical studies through to A’level and we are sure you are going to enjoy the next two years! On the blog I will try and summarise some of the key ideas we look at in lessons whilst also providing you with some useful links and resources to support you with your homework and coursework. Homework: Spare copies of this weeks homework sheet on Sand Dune Succession can be downloaded here. Please remember it is due in on Monday 17th September This week has been a quick introduction to plant succession and coastal ecosystems as we start to think about the emphasis of your coursework project which we will be starting sooner than you think! Here is a quick reminder of some of the key points we have looked at:

(ii) How do Sand Dunes develop?

REMEMBER: Key term – plant succession in a sand dune ecosystem is known as a psammosere

Remember sand dunes are an important deposition feature formed by the wind (aeolian processes). They normally develop where: (i) there is a strong on-shore wind; (ii) there is a large supply of sand; (iii) a large inter-tidal range so that large expanses of sand regularly dry out.

A simple sequence of Sand Dune Formation and succession.

  • The wind moves sand dried out at low tide inland by saltation;
  • An obstacle (e.g. driftwood) will halt saltation and result in the accumulation of sand
  • Pioneer plants (e.g. marram grass) can tolerate the harsh conditions and begin to colonise the area – this encourages further deposition and the growth of the dunes;
  • another dune forms on the seaward side of the original dune (sheltering the original dune and resulting in changing environmental conditions)
  • A sequence of dunes forms (oldest inland) and environmental conditions continue to change due to the presence of vegetation (e.g. simple soils form due to decaying vegetation).
  • Number and diversity of plant species on the dunes increases – eventually the climax community is reached;

(iii) Primary Succession on Sand Dunes

Due to the process of succession , it se often possible to see clear zonation in sand dunes due to succession as the sand dunes tend to form in a series of parallel ridges of increasing age (see diagram drawn in your notes and learn the changing characteristics of each zone).

Key Terms to learn (associated with work from this lesson):

  • EMBRYO DUNE – youngest dunes where sand has just started to accumulate – very little vegetation – only xerophytic species such as marram grass present, helping to stabalise the dune.
  • FOREDUNES – larger than embryo dunes, formed as more sand accumulates and embryo dunes begin to join together
  • YELLOW DUNE – reach up to 5 meters – yellow colour due to lack of presence of soil
  • GREY DUNE – these are mature dunes (8-10m high) – they are grey in colour due to the presence of humus through the process of bioconstruction (where soil has been formed due to the presence of decaying vegetation and bacteria)
  • WASTING DUNE – The oldest dunes (often with blow outs present) (no longer fed by supply of fresh sand dune to distance from beach)
  • DUNE SLACK – these are depression between the dunes where the water table is near to the surface (environmental conditions tend to be more favourable here due to sheltered conditions – has a better developed plant community – often water loving specieis – e.g. Bog Cotton)
  • BLOW OUT – these are channels through the dune created as trampling by animals or humans has destroyed vegetation, exposing sand to the action of wind.
  • XEROPHYTIC – these are plants which are tolerant of very dry conditions (i.e. can survive lack of water – marram grass is a good example (learn the adaptations of marram grass – see coursework notes).
  • HALOPHYTIC – these are plants which are tolerant of salty conditions

Test yourself on the key terms by having a go at this crossword.

To help with revision and to give yourself a quick reminder – here is the powerpoint we have been using in class this week.

Background Reading on Sand Dunes:

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